A lot of people probably know one historical event that occurred at the end of the XIXth century in Alaska. 1896 saw the beginning of real gold rush which lasted for several years and drew a large number of people into the Northern part of America like a vacuum cleaner. They all went to a rather harsh place for one purpose only – to find the gold. Many people found this precious metal, earned fortunes, but there were also those who spent the last money, but returned home empty-handed. It was very good if they came back alive from this inhospitable region.
It was already a little bit more than 100 years after these events, precisely in 2003, when there was something similar, but this time the event was more extensive and it touched the carder world. Since then, every beginner, who has made a decision to come to carding, has been making various attempts in order to put into practice what every colleague dreams of. After all, they ask the same question: “Where is it better to buy dumps with pin”? After all, if you get the correct answer to this question, you can already come to the ATM, put a credit card dump in it and withdraw cash.
At first, such questions were answered with diverse jokes and they recommended a person to go out and freshen up, but the situation changed dramatically in 2003. This was due to not very high qualification and poor speed of one carder from America. His actions can be compared with the activities of Alexander Fleming, who managed to discover penicillin. However, the latter was able to achieve this result thanks to the disregard for his work, because he did not close the cup in which this culture grew, as a result of which the spores of wild penicillin got into the cup from the environment. Such a misdemeanor would have resulted in dismissal in any laboratory, but Fleming even won the Nobel Prize for such an oversight.
Something similar happened with the American carder, who just did not take into account all the manuals that are available on credit cards. They say about the presence of the code CVV/CVC, which must be checked by the Issuer during each transaction. Moreover, its introduction without the use of a secret key is impossible, and this key is stored in a bank.
Due to phishing, this employee managed to get a few numbers of plastic bank cards that were going to expire. Moreover, he also got some pin codes. Basing on the available data, the carder decided to generate a working dump, and then receive cash through an ATM. Many representatives of card security, who had already had a lot of experience, were very surprised to learn that such a trick was successful. Many people remember the time when the UK carders, who took pictures of the cards and peeped their pin codes, were caught by the police. After that, each of the transactions by all issuers had to pass with the verification of CVV / CVC code. However, now we are talking about the state of things in the 20th century, or to be more precise, in the 80s.
If you ask a hundred bank employees who work in the field of plastic cards whether it is possible have a transaction through atm dumps with pin without checking CVV / CVC, all of them will give the affirmative answer – it is simply impossible. Though, in reality, such things happen, though not in every bank and not every day, but sometimes it happens.
There is no accurate information that caused this situation, but the fact is that some banks did not check CVV/CVC during ATM transactions. Maybe it’s a human factor. Perhaps, the banking software was configured badly. As a result, if you knew the card number, which expired, as well a pin code, it was possible to generate the rest of cc dumps, and then withdraw cash from the bank. As soon as such an operation was done, the news immediately began to spread among the carders, and this could be compared with the information that was carried by the miners in Alaska. That’s what triggered the second gold rush.
The truth is that there was created a cunning workaround in order not to make the situation get out of control. It was said that fake dump CVV / CVC code was generated simply at random and smart carders deciphered the algorithm by which the code was encrypted. As a result, a part of carders started looking for a nonexistent algorithm.
Of course, this was in the past. Now, everybody knows what cvv dumps are needed, but there is a small problem. The fact is that not everyone knows where to buy credit car dumps, because there is a large number of pacifiers. In our dumps shop you will buy credit card dumps exactly what you have been looking for. There are only the best dumps with pins which will fully satisfy your requests and requirements to them.
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Nowadays, when considering the application of the client for the issuance of credit special attention is focused on the credit history of the potential borrower, information about which is requested by the bank in the credit bureau. The purpose of creation of the Bureau was to reduce the risks when loaning. Credit report – is a document reflecting the client’s reputation as a borrower. In this way, bank receives information about the customer`s existing loans and the quality of service loan repayments. This information has an impact on the adoption of decision by a credit institution on granting a loan.
How to get a credit report?
The borrower is entitled to receive a summary report on his active and repaid loans in accordance with the Law “On Credit Histories”. Besides the borrower access to the data of the Bureau also has a banking institution in the presence of the written consent of the client. In some cases, Bureau provides information on the credit history at the requirements of third parties (courts, police) in accordance with the law. Getting information once a year is free, subsequent requests are to be paid for.
At the moment, it is almost impossible to get a credit report online. In accordance with the law such information may be received in person or through an authorized representative or, assuring notarized request. In any case, the request performed by a computer is not made by a client in person. Such organization of the procedure reduces the risk of access to personal information of strangers, holding passport data of other persons.
You can get a credit history in three ways:
- A written request to the official website of the credit bureau. The borrower fills out an application form (from the website), notarize it and send a letter to the postal address of the Bureau. The answer must be sent by mail no later than 10 working days from the date of receipt of the request by addressee.
- Appeal to the official website of the Bureau of Credit Histories by a telegram. In the telegram must be specified passport and address data of the client whose signature is certified by the employee of post office. Credit report in this case also must be submitted no later than 10 working days.
- Appeal to the organization cooperating with the credit bureau. Contact numbers and addresses of such organizations can be found on the website of the Bureau.
- Gather information about the charity center or the car donation center where you consider to donate your car. All charity centers are different. Like everything else in life, some are good, while others are working in bad faith. It is unlikely that you will know about it until you have enough information about them. Here are some relatively simple ways to do this.
- Before you donate your car to a charity or non-profit center for car donation, you should check their tax documentation, simply go to the site irs.gov.
- Check the tax deduction. Another point that you want to learn- documentation of the tax deductions that you get when you donate your car. Most charity centers sell donated cars, because the procees of car transfer for destitute or its sale at a very low price create many difficulties. Furthermore, charity centers are dependent on revenues from sales of donated cars in the financing of their mission.
- If the charitable foundation will sell your car, you can get $ 500 or part of the sum that charity organization has gained from the sale of your car. To maximize the tax deduction, you need to learn how the organization is going to sell your car. Some charity funds sell donated cars to the same dealer. This is a fundamentally wrong idea, because the more competition there is, the more likely that the selling price will be higher.
- Other funds put all the cars up for auction. It is a good idea if car is in good condition. However, if the car needs repair or it is in bad condition, it cannot lead to the best possible sales price. The reason for this is that at first buyer pays for the right to participate in the auction and then pays the commission when buying a car. Most buyers take into account these commissions in advance by placing their bets at auction.
- Learn the process. In most cases, you can most profitably sell cars, referring to several dealers who are ready to buy the donated cars. And here’s why. If car is in good condition, it makes sense to put it up for auction in order to allow more customers to place their bets. If car is in satisfactory condition, selling it directly to the dealer engaged in second-hand cars can be the most profitable way, because it can offer a great price to avoid the commission of the auction. If car is in very poor condition, spare parts shop can offer the highest price, so that then resell work items and metal used in the construction of cars, on scrap metal.
- Find out which of the methods of welfare center is going to sell your car. This will help you determine whether they will provide you the greatest amount of the tax deduction for your donation.
1. In the first place – with the highest reduced rate
This would seem obvious, but many people try to extinguish the first small loans to pay at least a part of it. In this case, you overpay the interest of service, so that the total sum obtained is bigger. For example, you have one loan at 13% per annum, the second – at 10%. For the same loan amount, focus on payments of 13 per cent loan, paying the minimum payments on the other.
You will have to pay the interest any way, but in such a way you will make them smaller.
Tip: Calculate loans: extinguish those that are profitable, but not those you want to.
2. If the calculations of several loans are approximately equal
Reverse method: if you have several loans with equal charges, extinguish the least one. This so-called “snowball method”: repayment of a loan motivates you to put out next, and you reduce their number. For most people it’s easier, and they subconsciously incline to this method. Please note that if you are threatened with confiscation, or in one of the loans calculation is clearly greater, this method is excluded, extinguish a larger loan, as described above!
Tip: If you have equal debts try to close a particular loan
3. Restructuring and Refinancing
If you took a large sum for business development or purchase of apartment, and have paid at least one-third, you can ask about the restructuring. It is profitable in that case, if now bank gives for the same purpose loans at lower interest rates. They can make advance, and you’ll get not only the reduction in total debt, but also the extension of the new loan. That is, you can take advantage of the restructuring to reduce the monthly payment, increasing the total term of the loan. Restructuring makes sense when interest rates are substantially different, as when formalizing everything you have to pay the commission and some other payments, so carefully calculated profits.
By the way, not all banks agree to refinance their own loans, so that you can try to sell the loan to another bank.
Tip: If you cannot pay – restructure: restructuring will gather all into one payment and reduce the monthly sum.
4. Repayment of the loan from another account
If you want to repay the loan with other bank credit card on which you have no debt, and there is a certain amount of money, which you can use, make sure that it is profitable. Even if you can use the amount at 0%, there are always commissions related to transactions, so that you will lose some money, but at the same time increase the amount of credits that you have to put out at a time. If you choose this method, to calculate the amount of the debt, divide the number of months during which the acts interest-free loan, and make sure that you have enough funds to pay off.
Tip: Keep out of penalties: use other loans, if the situation requires.
To whom can you donate?
The list of organizations is long, but they share a common principle – non-profit organizations. These can be:
- a community trust fund established exclusively for charitable, religious, educational, scientific or literary purposes, or for the prevention of cruelty to children or animals;
- churches, synagogues and other religious organizations;
- war veterans organization;
- non-profit volunteer fire company;
- volunteer organizations;
- cemeteries, crypts, etc.
What can you donate?
You can give to charity, followed by a deduction from the tax, almost everything, most importantly, that these things were in good or very good condition, ie, a broken vacuum cleaner won`t be accepted.
You can donate:
- clothes and other personal items;
- furniture, appliances and other household items;
- real estate: houses, land;
- cars, boats, motorcycles;
- jewelry, precious metals and stones;
- shares, securities;
- to organize some very necessary activities requiring investments;
- collections, pieces of art, etc.
Those who do not want to search for such organizations can simply bring to the store «Good Will» or similar stores their belongings.
How to determine the value of donated goods?
The law has a fairly detailed description of how to determine the value of things, check out the information here irs.gov.pdf. The whole essence of the definition of the cost comes down to the fact that it can not be higher than the market prices of similar goods.
For example, the clothes will be worth many times less than it was originally bought. By the way, the maximum allotted clothing, which are allowed to deduct from the tax – it’s $ 500. For a larger amount it has to be some kind of a special case.
To evaluate the real estate, and other unique products you usually need to involve experts.
For all categories of products there is teir maximum (always have reservations and special cases), which can be deducted from taxes.
The concept of the balance came from Italy. As an accounting term, it stuck in the XIX century. The balance is translated from Italian as the rest of the calculation, the price paid. In accounting, it means the difference between the amount of pay-in account, that is, flow rate, and expense account – credit. At the beginning of the XX century its meaning has expanded and moved beyond accounting.
Types of balance
Credit balance – in this case credit is bigger than flow rate. This indicator makes it possible to see the status of a source of income that is used for the execution of business affairs of the enterprise. The credit balance is shown in the balance sheet liabilities.
Debit balance – debit is bigger than credit. It shows the state of the balance relating to the conduct of operations. In this case for the basis is taken a specific period of time.
The score on performed operation closes when the difference between credit and debit is zero.
Usually, in practice, not the whole history of the movement of funds is taken into account, but the selected time period (month, quarter, year). This period is called reporting.
The calculation of the balance of money in the account is not possible without understanding of the following definitions:
- Opening balance. It shows the rest of finance on a specific account of the beginning of the reporting period. This is calculated by taking into account the previous operations;
- outgoing balance shows the balance of the account on the date of completion of the period. To calculate the amount you need to add up the initial balance and all transactions for a specific period;
- the balance of the period – this figure indicates the result of all the previous operations, which were carried out in a certain period.
To determine credit turnover it is necessary to calculate the result on the accounts of by selecting the desired period.
At the present time, as well as a few centuries ago, the balance – is the difference of final accounts according to the account of debit and credit.
But besides the specific accounting transactions this term is widely used in foreign trade.
Isabel de Farnesio has possessed the dark blue diamond for more than 300 years, and now this precious thing was sold on the famous auction “Sotheby’s”. It is worth noting that the diamond was purchased for the sum that exceeded the expected figures.
The auction, where famous diamond was sold, took place in Geneva. A number of other precious stones were also bidden upon, which yielded great results. However, the attention of most participants of the auction was drawn to 6.16-carat pear-shaped Farnese Blue.
Queen of Spain received this diamond in 1715 from the governor of Philippine islands for the wedding of the royal person. Since then, the blue gem travelled to almost all countries of Europe with the descendants of Isabel de Farnesio. It is noteworthy that the precious stone has never left the storehouse of the royal house in 300 years.
The protection of diamond “Farnese Blue” was very serious. For that reason, it has never been to the strangers for all the years it was possessed by the dynasty. In all this time, only family jeweler, immediate family and royalty have seen it. As a result, almost no one even heard of this precious stone.
A veil of secrecy has been lifted only recently, when it was decided to offer the famous jewelry for sale. Experts of auction house “Sotheby’s” did a thorough examination of the diamond, after which the diamond went on a world tour. During this journey, it was demonstrated in Taipei, Singapore, New York, London and Hong Kong. The last destination point of the jewelry was Geneva, where Farnese Blue was sold for $6,7 million.
We should note that the auction lasted only 4 minutes.
Foreign borrowers have little use of “cash” loans so popular among Russians – for all the payments they use the credit cards and with their use generally occur most questions from those of our citizens who work, study or went abroad forever. Moreover, the specificity of credit cards (and credits in general) in Europe or the States is very different from the loan “plastic”, to which the Russians have become accustomed.
For example, to such a question as refinancing we come only in respect of mortgage loans, and Russian banks do not give the possibility to change the conditions on most of the current credit agreements. Abroad, the credit organizations approach the issue of debts very differently, believing that even the other bank of the debtor can be converted into a grateful client, offering it the opportunity to consolidate debts (combination of multiple loans into one, and often at a lower interest rate). To “transfer” debt from one bank to another in Europe can be even by a credit card – this procedure is called a balance transfer.
How does this happen?
In order to “transfer” your debt balance to another bank, you will have to open a new credit card and using it repay your old debt. This service has been popular among Europeans, not only because it makes it possible to change the current conditions of use of credit card to more profitable, but also for another reason. The fact that European banks are seeking to survive as credit card issuers, vying with each other offer “newcomer” customers an introductory promotional interest rate – a period of one to six months, when on the money used is charged a minimum percentage, and in some banks this fee may even be 0 %. For the fact of the transition, banks typically do not charge a fee, and in order to use the service you will need only your e-mail address and a valid social security number.
Why do you need it?
In Europe credit cards are a fairly extensive business segment for banks. This “plastic” – is the main source of their income, so the desire to attract as many cardholders as possible is understandable. For these same borrowers, such a procedure becomes a great opportunity to get a respite for payment by credit card. Even if we consider that the interest rates on credit cards in the European average is 16% per annum (how can we not recall the “domestic” 25-27%), with such sums that the average European should give banks on the cards, it is a significant burden on the budget. Therefore, balance transfer is an excellent way for a certain period to return (now to a new) bank funds at a reduced interest rate, which ultimately translates into a decent save.
The world never stays still. It is constantly changing and developing. In the twenty-first century, it feels particularly dynamic: rapid growth of technology and globalization became an integral part of our lives. Each of us daily faces various aspects of technological progress and information exchange.
Separately it’s worth noting the financial sector as a standing on the front-line of technological progress. In the developed and developing world, it has long become synonymous with a dynamic and changing world and a symbol of global links between the countries and corporations. World’s leading research centers have already drawn attention to this relatively new segment of alternative finance market and are quite optimistic about its prospects.
How peer to peer loans are developed?
Р2P-lending is a mechanism of borrowing between the individuals through the special online-platforms. Its basic idea is that people can lend money to each other without the involvement of the financial institutions: banks, credit unions or microfinance organizations. The world’s levels of Р2P-lending already amount to tens of billions of dollars, and they grow every year.
How do p2p loans work?
Р2P stands for “peer-to-peer” or “person-to-person”. Future creditors and borrowers are registered on рeer2peer-platforms – Internet resources or programs, installed on smartphones, and conclude loan agreements right there. Unlike in banks, people arrange with each other about the debt stock, interests and maturities.
How to invest in p2p loans?
It works like this: investors and borrowers are registered in the system, after which the former get access to the requests placed by the latter. Investor can view them at any convenient time in search of advantageous offer, taking into account the interest rate, terms and rating of borrower. The latter depends on the data that the platform requests for each applicant in the credit reference bureau. The loan agreement is concluded with р2р-platform, which takes a commission for its services. As a rule, this is a % of loan amount. Both one and several persons can be the creditor on one loan.
How peer2peer loans are developed nowadays?
Such system is actively developing in the world. In this, one can borrow not only dollars or pounds, but also cryptocurrency. For example, some platforms of P2P credit allow one to borrow bitcoins.
How peer 2 peer loans key configurations of companies on Р2Р market act:
- online platform, requiring the mandatory registration of participants and allowing one to automate the search and selection of borrowers and creditors, reducing the level of cost. Most often all participants follow how p2p loans analog of credit rating is calculated, determining the interest rate and other conditions;
- classic intermediary, who provides the legal support of the direct lending transactions, focusing on the deposit as a way to minimize the risk. Intermediary is also responsible for the means test, expert real estate valuation and meeting of investor and borrower in real time at minimal cost.
Gold is soft, yellow, malleable precious metal. Gold is inferior to platinum group metals in its chemical properties. In addition, the cost of gold is traditionally high; therefore, only 10% of the world’s gold is used for industrial purposes: as a material for electrical contacts in microelectronics, metal soldering, in pharmacology and dentistry. The rest of the gold available is distributed approximately equally between the reserves of central and commercial banks, the property of individuals in the form of bars and jewelry.
Gold has long been used by many nations as money. Since the advent of paper money, secured by gold reserves, the rate of gold has been set by the monetary authorities, depending on the amount of gold reserves of the country. During the expansion of production and trade in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, paper money gradually devalued due to the lack of gold security. The rate of gold was constantly growing at that time. This had continued until 1944, when the US dollar remained the only currency tied to gold at a fixed rate due the Bretton woods agreement. Gold actually turned from the main to the reserve currency. In 1971, the US government unilaterally renounced its obligations to maintain the official price of gold in us dollars. 1976 saw a complete demonetization of gold after the introduction of the floating exchange-rate system. Gold lost its monetary functions of a reserve currency and became just a commodity. Since that time, gold prices have been determined by the volume of supply and demand in the commodity market.
Currently, the price of gold depends mainly on the investment demand. In developing countries, such as India and China, the demand for gold is mainly in the form of jewelry. The mechanisms of investing in gold in developed countries are more diverse: buying gold bars, investment coins, opening an allocated account or investing in ETF funds.
Currently, the value of gold is an important economic indicator that allows you to assess the propensity of investors to risk. The quotations of gold and stock market indices often change in the opposite way: investors prefer to invest in gold as in a protective asset during an unstable economic situation. On the contrary, investors are more risky when they are optimistic. As a result, there is a capital inflow into the stock market and the outflow of capital from the commodity market. Therefore, the quotations of gold often fall in periods of economic growth.
Experts of the analytical Metals Focus Company, which is engaged in the study of the market of precious metals, discuss whether the world gold mining has reached its peak, and when the decline in production will begin.
At the present time we can see the facts which prove both the decline and the growth of production. For example, 2017 saw a new record of gold production in the world, although the increase was only 3 tons, compared with 2016. However, the world gold mining could have been greater by the end of 2017 if China hadn’t declined the production of the yellow precious metal by 7% due to new requirements for the protection of the environment.
However, a negative factor is the reduction in the number of new fields that have been put into operation in recent years. 11 fields entered the production phase during 2011-2013, but 2014-2016 witnessed a decrease in their number to 5. According to experts, 20 new gold deposits were put into operation last year. Is last year an exception?
Metals Focus predicts that gold production will grow only by 0.1% in 2018. According to analysts, there will have been a reduction in a number of new projects for the production of yellow precious metal by 2020. The existing fields will move into the phase of production reduction. The total gold production in the world will be by 1.7% less than in 2017.
The review states that the depleted gold deposits were compensated in 2017 with the help of available reserves. Therefore, there is a high probability of increasing the production of yellow precious metal in the long term. Experts expect the growth of gold production in Russia, Canada, Burkina Faso, Congo, Mauritania and Mongolia. China, on the contrary, should not expect a return to the previous volumes of production of precious metals.
Quotations of precious metals show their value, expressed in a specific currency per gram or in Troy ounce (31.1035 grams). Current prices are a fundamental criterion that determines the degree of investment expediency of precious metals. Quotations accounting allows analysts, investors to create statistical data to predict market dynamics and determine the direction of activities.
Quotations of precious metals of unallocated bullion account: specifics of work with the account
Unallocated bullion account reflects the price dynamics of metals in an unallocated form, shows the weight of precious metal in grams belonging to the client, without designating the sample, quantity, manufacturer and other individual features.
Investments in precious metals with registration on an unallocated metal account are an ideal solution. The reason for it is a positive trend in the change of each quotation of precious metals of unallocated bullion account, where additional operations of their attraction and placement are performed.
Advantages of unallocated bullion account:
- no VAT on purchase and sale transactions;
- no transport, production costs in the price of unallocated metal;
- the elimination of risks concerning the loss, force majeure;
- the availability of cash accounting system.
Metal account can be opened for silver, palladium, gold or platinum. Unallocated bullion account is not included in the deposit guarantee system, so you should choose a bank that practices such type of services.
London quotations of precious metals: pricing
The London stock market is full of world non-ferrous metal manufacturers, large traders and consumers. The London precious metals quotations (fixings), which are held daily, play a role of the reference point of the world prices of precious metals.
The pricing method is traditional: two sessions are held during five days, except for weekends. The stock market publishes official prices at the end of the morning session. These are the estimated prices for long-term contracts, their payment. The price for cash payments on contracts is voiced individually.
The price of metals is constantly linked to the exchange price, regardless of the difference in the raw material cost. The margin and the discount are affected by the demand for them.