About the giant and the small panda world has learned only in the XIX century. Small panda was discovered by scientists in 1821. Giant panda was found much later – in 1869, but managed to catch a big panda only after 68 years after its discovery.
Since the discovery of giant pandas began their study. But after two centuries of research, much of the pandas is still a mystery. And only a few facts about pandas became known around the world. We are invited to consult the fifteen most interesting facts about the giant and red pandas.
Facts about pandas
- For the first time scientists have studied the giant panda, they concluded that it was a giant raccoon. Only centuries later, with the help of a genetic test, the scientists were able to establish that a large panda – bear.
- The red panda belongs to a separate superfamily – Musteloidea that includes several families: raccoon, skunk and weasel.
- The main food of the pandas is bamboo, but sometimes in addition to bamboo pandas eat food of animal origin.
- As the small and giant pandas on the front paws have six ordinary fingers. Sixth, thumb, helps animals to capture and keep the bamboo.
- To prepare the young giant pandas to live in their natural habitat, scientists at the research center of Chengdu, China, wear a panda costume. This is done in order to baby panda get used to the visually similar to him relatives.
- By the size a big panda is not inferior to black bear, but inferior in speed. While panda is able to accelerate to a fast pitch black bear has a top speed of 40 to 50 kilometers per hour.
- Babies of giant panda at birth weigh only 140 grams, but at the age of 3 months, their weight is 4-6 kg.
- At birth, the color of giant pandas is white and in a week the baby pandas get a recognizable color.
- Cubs of red pandas at birth have a beige color. The fur color, as in the adult, cubs get only on the 3 month of life.
- For a full life in the natural environment a giant panda should have 7-11 square kilometers of land.
- Giant pandas are not sold in other zoos, but leased. For lease of a panda China gets a rent of 1 million. US dollars annually. If in the zoo panda born offspring, it is transferred to China to restore the gene pool.
- Life expectancy of giant panda in the natural environment is 14 to 20 years. Captive pandas live up to 26 years.
- Red panda in wildlife lives on average 8-10 years. In captivity they live up to 19 years.
- As giant and small pandas live in bamboo forests, which are only in China, India, Nepal, Myanmar and Bhutan.
Every year, on February 27 the international ecological community marks the day of the polar bear. Mankind has reached the verge that now people are forced to protect these wonderful animals living on the polar plains of themselves, and that scientists forecast that could disappear by 2025. Especially because the polar bears are not simple inhabitants of the planet. And here’s why ..
The polar bear is considered to be the largest predator on land. For example, the weight can be up to 700 kilograms, and length – three meters. Besides this handsome polar handsome is the undisputed champion in swims. We know that without rest bears are capable of overcoming the water distance of almost 700 kilometers. However, they reach speeds on land up to 40 kilometers per hour, and by water about 10.
These terrestrial mammals have a terrific sense of smell. Their prey polar bears feel more than for a half kilometer and a meter-thick layer of snow. Favorite treats of this predator are marine hares and ringed seals. In general, experts note that the white clumsy – are the adherents of proper nutrition because they naturally build a balanced diet. The food they eat is very high in calories – skin and the subcutaneous fat of seals, as well as red meat, which is rich in valuable animal protein.
It is known that the majority of polar bears do not tolerate the neighbourhood and prefer to live alone. However, from this rule there are exceptions, and it turns out, that even the males can be friends with each other, and even sleeping in an embrace. By the way, these polar inhabitants are among the most non-aggressive predators – polar bears rarely attack humans.
These animals, in contrast to their brown brothers, only partly go into hibernation. Typically, these are pregnant females. In the fall, they dig in snowdrifts their “lair”, which consists of one or three compartments and a long tunnel. There a female bear falls into a state only similar to hibernation. In fact, it is not a continuous sleep. However, it is noted that at this time the female body temperature is greatly reduced, and the heart rate slows down, which usually happens during sleep.
A great misconception to assume that polar bears – the inhabitants of the land. According to the scientific classification, they referred to as marine mammals and sea bears, because they spend most of the time precisely in water.
And also polar bears may starve to three months and used to keep themselves clean. They – the adherents of careful hygiene and always wash themselves after eating, riding in the snow. This habit allows animal fur to keep warm.
Crocodiles are – predatory exotic reptile. In our latitudes, they can be found only in zoos. Therefore, we have collected the most interesting facts about crocodiles in one article.
- Approximately 250 million years ago on Earth appeared the first crocodiles. Unusual is that at land was their habitats. Then they gradually shifted to the semi-aquatic life.
- The largest crocodile is the saltwater crocodile, or Crocodylus porosus. The length of this creature can reach seven meters and a weight of a ton.
- Hatched crocodile is three times longer than its eggs.
- The speed of crocodiles swimming is 40 kilometers per hour. They run even less – up to 11 kilometers per hour over short distances.
- In jaws of crocodiles there are from 64 to 70 teeth. Teeth change up to a hundred times in life. The jaws of a crocodile can link up with incredible force.
- To help his stomach to cope with the large pieces of food, crocodiles swallow stones. Furthermore, these boulders play a role of ballast to get to depth.
- The male crocodile may have up to twelve females. He often calls his harem to assist in cutting a large carcass of prey.
- On average, crocodiles live up to 50 years. But there are also long-lived in the age 110 years.
- Interesting facts about crocodiles also touch their skin. It is considered one of the best and thus – expensive materials for the manufacture of fancy goods. Did you know that for a handbag, gloves, belts, shoes is suitable only mild skin from the belly of a crocodile? The rest is unsuitable because it is more rigid and tough.
- In the blood of crocodiles there is a substance, a natural antibiotic (krokodilin), which prevents the festering wounds and inflammation of the skin.
- Osteolaemus tetraspis – is the smallest dwarf species of crocodiles, whose adults barely reach two meters. In addition, it is a land crocodile
- For one time the crocodile may eat a portion of food, the weight of which is 23% of the weight of him. However, 60% of food is processed into oil. These reserves allow crocodiles to starve for a long time without compromising their health.
- The term “crocodile” in Greek language means “stone worm.”
- On the tongue of crocodiles there are salt glands, through which output an excess of salt water from their body.
- Crocodiles are not trainable. However, in Burkina Faso in Africa it is a pond with a tame crocodiles. They are fed by locals for what reptiles allow to touch their tails. On these crocodiles you can even ride. Naturally, such an attraction tourists do not miss!
The African elephant is the biggest of mammals that inhabit the Earth. How much strength and power collected in this animal! Even more interesting facts about elephants, you can learn from this article.
- The most important difference from the female of the Indian elephants of males – is the lack of tusks.
- The size of the tusks of elephants – it is a genetic trait. Elephant with very large tusks in our time does not exist. Many thousands of years ago, they were killed by hunters. Tusks of elephants in the modern animal world – small or non-existent. One third of their length is hidden in the skull.
- Elephants, like people, can be right-handed and left-handed. Only, instead of hands, they are distinguished by tusks.
- The average amount of food an elephant eats for a day, is 300 kilograms.
- In the elephant’s trunk can fit about 8 liters of water.
- When a herd of elephants coming famine, all the animals apart and eat separately.
- The leader of the herd of elephants, in most cases, are the female elephants.
- Meeting elephants greet each other a special ritual: they entwine trunks.
- Elephants – very friendly animals. In addition to the welcome at the meeting, they help small elephants. As a child of man holds hands of mother and baby elephant holds a trunk of the frmale elephant. If the elephant from herds see that baby elephant slipped, he immediately helps him.
- These animals are sad, if in their herd is something wrong and rejoice, for example, if the elephant is born. Elephants are able to even smile.
- Communicate elephants together at very low frequencies that are inaudible to man. This allows them to talk at a distance of several kilometers.
- Not only ears allow elephants to hear. Catching ultra-low noise, they may even with legs.
- Did you know that a 30-pound elephant’s heart beats about 30 beats per minute? For comparison, the heart of a healthy adult makes 70 strokes over the same period of time.
Leo since immemorial times has been synonymous with strength, power and courage and bravery. Because of this, among people rooted sayings, “as strong as a lion” or “lion’s heart.” In ancient Egypt, the lion was considered a sacred animal. It should be noted the interesting fact that in Europe, too, lions lived about 500 AD until they were all destroyed. Lion – is a beast that is dangerous for animals and humans. In the Middle Ages, many royal courts were decorated with hcoat of arms depicting a lion, in order to show power, authority and power.
We decided to collect for you some interesting facts about lions, to show once again how interestig and scary lion is.
- In addition to the nose, lions like all cats can pick up odors with the help of so-called “tube Jacobson”, located on the upper palate behind the front incisors. Lions use them when fully focus on some particularly interesting smell, sucking in air, slightly raising the upper lip and nose.
- The muzzle of a lion is like a human fingerprint. There are no two lions with the same muzzle.
- The claws of a lion can reach a length – 7 cm.
- An adult lion has 30 teeth. Specific sign is also four nipples in females.
- Despite the huge teeth, lions do not really chew food. Instead they ingest large pieces of meat, using only one side of the jaw.
- Night vision of lion is six times better than human`s.
- The smallest heart from all predators have … the lion.
- Adult lion roar so loud that you can hear at a distance of 8 kilometers
- At the age of 2 years lions cannot roar
- If a lion is full, animals that he hunts, can walk beside him, without worrying for their lives.
- Most man-eating lions – are young males in good physical shape. Until now it was thought that only sick or wounded lion attacks on humans and pets because it can not catch up with the fleet-sacrifice such as zebra or gazelle.
- Puberty male lion reaches at 5 years, and females at age of 4. But after that they continue to grow in size – typically up to six years. Lions breed year-round, but the peak is in the rainy season. In non-pregnant females in heat estrus begins only in 16 days after the end of the previous one.
- Polygamous not only males but also females usually occurs as a pairing with a male-dominant, and the other lions of the pride.
- Lion mates 672 per week
- In the mating season, the male lion mates every 15 minutes for two weeks in a row.
- Newborn cubs weigh only 1-2 kg. On the 11th day they open their eyes, and on the 15th start walking. On the skin of young cubs there are dark spots, which then disappear.
- Lion cubs are fed with milk along with his mother all lactating lioness.
- Lionesses live longer, as the old lions usually expels or pride or the other, more powerful male. In nature, they live on the average 14 to 16 years (up to 18 years in the Serengeti), and males rarely reach 11 years, but you can find more old lion (under 16 years). The average life expectancy of lions in captivity – 13 years.
Grizzly Bear is a subspecies of brown bear, which is found in Alaska and western Canada. In appearance grizzly is similar to a Siberian subspecies of the brown bear.
In general, grizzly is much larger than Siberian brown bear, it is stronger and heavier. A distinctive feature of the grizzly is its size. At the height an adult male grows up to 2.8 meters and weigh up to 500 kilograms, but in nature can be found animals, the growth of which is up to 4 meters. Grizzly Bear has powerful jaws and claws, a length of 15 centimeters. The tail, unlike the brown bear`s, is short. Grizzly shoulders, his stomach and neck are covered with dark brown fur. All the rest of his body is covered with lighter hair, which gives the fur greyish hue.
For today the grizzly bear is found in Alaska and in western Canada. Isolated populations of grizzly bears can be found in northern Idaho, western Montana, north-west of Wyoming and the Northern Cascade Mountains (Washington).
Grizzly Bear as his brown kinsman hibernates. Grizzly feed with plant food , and only at a young age, he climbs trees as claws do not interfere. Grizzly is a good swimmer and easily swims wide rivers, good fishing, skillfully ruins hives to get honey. When walking grizzly is rocking and reloading. When he sees a man grizzlt does not escape and attacks him, but it does so only if it sees danger from man. This is because grizzlies have a poorly developed sense of smell and hearing and eyesight, and often bear confuses human with an animal. With the risk or irritation rizzly immediately rushes into the fray, he squeezes his opponent in his powerful paws and tears it of with his teeth and help himself with claws.
Aggressiveness of grizzly can be easily understood, as happened in the 20th century its extermination. People, regardless of whether the bear was a threat to their lives, hunted and killed him. For the head of a bear even relied prize.
Estrus at grizzly bears begins in May and lasts for one month. In order to determine its partner bears use standard categories such as odor, mark in its own territory, and others. The males are fighting among themselves, and during the hard battles gave a loud roar. Despite the fact that males for three weeks guard selected females from other males, females in estrus period can mate with several males.
Bear cubs are born 8 months later. The female gives birth to 2 to 3 bear cubs, whose body is covered with sparse fur. The cubs are born blind, with an overgrown ear canal and they weigh only 500 grams. The body length of newborn grizzlies is 25 centimeters. After three months, bear cubs grow to the size of a small dog. With educating of young deals female. Young grizzlies grow up to 11 years.
Mexican and Canadian grizzlies are listed as endangered.
What is unusual in panda?
In Tibet, they tell a legend about the panda. Once the girl met in the woods a white bear. They became friends and often played together. Once he was attacked by a snow leopard. The girl rushed to aid a friend and was killed. At her funeral all pandas came in black shoes and black gloves. Lamenting the girl, they rubbed eyes with paws, clutching their heads. Therefore ears of pandas are painted in black, and under the eyes there are black circles.
In the West, the panda was first introduced in 1869, in the Paris Museum of Natural History. Of course, it was a scarecrow. Only after 68 years, the West saw a panda alive. For many years it was considered even extinct. In 1961, the lovely animal became a symbol of the World Wildlife Fund. But what has attracted Europeans and Americans to panda ?
Panda – a strange child of nature. Scientists have been trying to solve its riddle. Examining the skin of the beast, they decided that the panda – a kind of plant-eating bears. Therefore, a panda bear was called bamboo bear. It was even thought the ancient bear kind.
But in 1936, the American scientist William Gregory has found at panda many anatomical features that characterized the American raccoon. Specialists had no doubt that the small panda – red, similar to a cat – is the Asian version of a raccoon. Giant Panda, according to Mr. Gregory, is giant a descendant of the small panda.
Belgian zoologist Serge Freshkop proposed to allocate panda in a special family, related both to bears and cats. However, the prevailing view is that the panda – is a special “creature”. Professor A.G. Bannikov writes: “The giant panda should be referred to a special family … intermediate between bears and raccoons.”
Indeed, panda – is a vegetarian. It feeds mainly with young bamboo shoots. The word “panda” comes from the local name “nyala poncha”, which means “eater of bamboo”. It keeps the stems of bamboo in his thick legs and bites. To do this, it was useful “sixth finger”: a bone lengthened and works as a thumb in our hand. With this finger can keep even the most delicate stalks of bamboo.
The space, which inhabits vegetarian, is small: mountain forests of Sichuan Province of China, which holds 300 km. It is here that panda can find their own food. But bamboo – a finicky plant: blooms about once every half century, gives the seeds and then dies. Only after three years there will be new growth and bamboo grove will bloom again with young green leaves. What to do during the rest time?
It is sad to see how a hungry animal dies! WWF, together with the Chinese government developed a recovery program called “Project Panda”. Center is the Wolong park. There are mountain, valleys, coniferous and deciduous forests, the carpet of ferns, and most importantly – growing bamboo. So that pandas have an opportunity to continue the race.
Today panda is difficult to find, not only bamboo, but also peace. This stems from the people. He cuts down the forest for the construction of bridges and roads. Day after day, from pandas becoming less room for habitats. So panda and does not know where to go.
Mysterious is the origin of this animal, bizarre its lifestyle and anatomy. None of the animals have something like this!
Polar or white bear is one of a family of bearish. At the present time – the largest species of bear.
Adult male of polar bear can weigh from 350 to 545 kilograms, and at the age of 8 to 14 years reaches adult height, if he gets up on his hind legs. Adult females weigh half as much as males – from 50 to 295 kilograms and to 5-6 years reach their maximum size.
Polar bears are not white. Their fur is colorless, because the hairs are hollow and transparent. They reflect light and look white.
Polar bears do not hibernate. Pregnant female bears, or mother-bears remain in dens and reduce their activity, while males continue to hunt throughout the winter.
There is a big difference between the weight and the size of male and female bears. Weight of males can reach 680 kilograms and their height – three meters. While the weight of females seldom reaches 270 kg, and the length – two meters.
Newborn cubs of polar bears are much smaller than the human newborn children. Just born bears do not exceed the size of a rat. Their weight is about 450 grams.
Although the temperature in the Arctic can drop to -45 ° C, polar bears do not usually have problems with freezing and overheating. Especially during the run. And all this because of the physiological characteristics of the bear responsible for heat retention. So the bears prefer to move slowly and methodically.
Polar bears – are excellent swimmers. Due to the structure of the clutches are elegantly and quickly swim. The average speed is 10 km / h. And swim 161 kilometers without stopping will make no difficulty for bears. By the way, they spend so much time in the water that some scientists attribute these animals to marine mammals.
Polar bears provide excellent sense of smell. They can smell a seal at a distance of 32 kilometers.
When bears fold to sleep , they close the nose with paw to keep warm.
Polar bears – big cleaners. After the meal, they spend about 20 minutes, scrubbing themselves. They need to make sure that the hair does not have any food debris that might reduce its insulating properties.
It is known that polar bears may be subjected to outbursts of anger. Not once was seen as a bear was throwing huge chunks of ice and growled loudly in frustration after a failed attempt to seize its prey.
Length without tail: 100-150 cm. Height: 65-100 cm. Weight: 100 kg, females less. Life expectancy: about 7 years. Related subspecies: the European wolf and the Japanese wolf.
Polar wolves inhabit one of the most barren areas of the Earth. In April the temperature rarely rises above -30 ° C. Constantly blowing wind causes that the perceived temperature seems much lower. Frozen earth allows to survive only plants with very short roots. By living in such conditions, can adapt only a few mammals. The most numerous group of animals that live in these regions – a lemming and arctic hare. However, in order to survive, the wolf flock sometimes needs and larger prey. Such may be musk oxen and reindeer, but they rarely come to these territories. Therefore, wolf flock should bypass an area covering 2,000 square kilometers. In winter the temperature drops. Small animals hide under the ground and caribou for food go to the south. Wolves follow them.
Polar wolves keep in flocks of 7-10 individuals. The most common are family flocks, which consists of parents, their cubs and individuals from previous litters. Flock is usually headed by the leader, and his female in the flock takes a similar position. The residue of the flock subjects and forms its own hierarchy. However, on the hunt, while feeding and educating of cubs all adult animals help each other. Often, one or two young wolfs look after the cubs when their mother leaves to hunt.
Hierarchical relationships within flock are carried out using complex language, consisting of movements, barking and growling. Wolves occupying a high position in the flock, require from subordinates unquestioning obedience, they, in turn, expressing devotion humbly press against the ground or lie on their back. Severe, bloody clashes between wolves are rare.
Wolves with howl alert other flocks of their presence, so they mark territory and try to avoid the meeting, which would lead to a fight. Lone wolves – are usually young animals, which have left their flock and went in search of a separate area. When such a wolf finds an unoccupied territory it designates it by the urinary points or defecating in certain well-marked areas, stating his rights to it.
In autumn and winter flock migrates, but after the mating season, pregnant wolf female leaves it to find a den. Sometimes a wolf female digs den itself, but in the winter when the ground is frozen much, the female brings posterity in the old den or in a rocky crevice.
Cubs are born blind, with closed ear holes and absolutely helpless. They are totally dependent on the mother. Approximately a month later wolf cubs already can eat half-digested meat, burp by male who brings food all this time for the female and wolf cubs. If a there is enough food, young wolves from the beginning of the summer become full members of the flock and migrate with adult individuals.
Each species of living organisms is unique, so its disappearance from the face of the earth – is a tragedy. However, there are some species of animals whose disappearance will not remain without a trace, not only for ecosystems, since these species play a key role in them, but for a man who used to witness them firsthand and on TV almost every day.
Here are these precious animals, standing on the brink of destruction.
African mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) – the biggest and strongest of all apes, despite its size – it is a very sociable and peaceful animal. The last remaining 600 animals could disappear with the natural habitat as a result of deforestation.
Previously, Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) lived all over the south-eastern coast of the United States. Now this species is found only in Florida. Landfills, farms, contaminated water leaves no chance to survive to this animal. In order to somehow save this species, scientists are forced to cross the Florida panther with panther of Texas.
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) lives in China, in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. The rapid development of China reserves this kind few chances of survival. The situation is aggravated by the fact that pandas possess the faint sexual instinct.
Huso (Huso huso) lived on Earth for 200 million years. The lifespan of this fish is 75 years, the maximum weight is two tons and a length up to 10 meters. One reason for its disappearance is dam of the Volga, which during spawning block her way into the upper reaches of the great Russian river.
Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is the largest animal on the planet, its length is 33 meters. The reason for the disappearance of this giant is the diminishing reserves of zooplankton – the main food of the whale.
Blue poison dart frog
Blue poison dart frog (Dendrobates azureus) it is one of the most amazing colored animal of the planet. People use poison of this frog skin secretions as part of painkillers. This frog inhabits in humid tropical forests of the Amazon, which disappears at a rate of four football fields per minute.
Cassowary (Casuarius casuarius) – ancient wingless bird of Australia, feeding on fruit, it spreads the seeds of tropical tree species. The reason for the disappearance of this birds are wild pigs, which attack and ravage nests of cassowaries, regardless of their size (weight up to 60 kg cassowaries).
Loggerhead Sea Turtle
Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta) lives in many countries. Long-distance migrations in excess of 2000 kilometers, and a large demand for meat of these turtles leave less and less chance of surviving this kind.
Staghorned corals (Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis) – are another victim of global warming. The increase of acidity in ocean has not the best impact on the lives of these organisms. If we consider that corals – are home to many species of fish, the consequences could be “long-playing”.