Advances of balloons had not stopped works on the creation of an aeroplane. On the contrary, the more successful was the work at controlled balloons, the wider was the development activities of researchers and engineers of trying to build airplanes. These works are still going in several directions: the study of the birds’ flight, building models, building a life-size airplanes and theoretical studies.
Physiologist Marey had subtle experiments on the mechanics of bird flight, and establish a relationship between the size, weight and power of birds. Similar studies were conducted subsequently by famous Otto Lilienthal in Germany and Muyyar in Algeria.
The Frenchman Alphonse Peno built remarkably stable in flight model with rubber engine – planophores.
Beautiful flying models were built by Parisian watchmaker Victor Tateno. One of his models equipped with a pneumatic engine that run on two propellers, was tied with a long rope to a peg that was standing in the middle of the smooth ground. It running on this platform, taking off and flying in circles.
In the US, Samuel Langley built and tested a whole series of models, researching air resistance, the influence of the angle of attack and the lift and drag, determining the position of the center of pressure at different angles of attack, figuring out the laws of sustainability.
The Englishman Line-Field built a glider with wings and had barred him mounted on a railway platform, and at 65 km / h glider was taking off.
Australian Hargrove has built an extremely interesting model, which gave no propeller thrust and flapping wings. Such models with air motor or miniature steam engines flew up to 150 and.
In Russia, many models were built and tested by V.Kress. Vladimir Kotov also built numerous paper models, which had a remarkable stability. Kotov studied the laws of stability and controllability on these models, independently developed all controls and proved their effect in flight.
Building models has had a great impact on the continued success of airplanes, facilitating the study of the basic laws of aerodynamics and stability.
Since 1874 Clement Ader has begun to work over the aeroplane in France. This talented engineer and hard worker built several original full-size aircraft; those ones externally have been resembling a bat. These airplanes were equipped with steam engines.
Last K. Ader aeroplanes were called Avion III with two steam engines with a total capacity of 40 hp. They had a gross weight of about 400 kg. This airplane was tested October 12, 1897 by Ader himself. At the first trial the machine made short takeoffs. In the second test on a windy day Ader was unable to conduct an airplane in the air in the desired direction. Avion fell and broke down. Soulless War Ministry officials refused to fund further Ader experiments and he left works on aeroplanes.
The famous inventor of machine guns Hiram Maxim led more research in the field of mechanical flight in England. His work included monitoring the flight of birds, laboratory tests of the wings and propellers, the study of the kites and finally building a huge airplane with two steam engines with a total capacity of 350 hp.
How often people standing in traffic jams dream about the wings, which could cover the distance in minutes. Especially the wings are needed when it is necessary to get into a very remote location, or to get to another continent. In these cases, a civil aviation is necessary. It is not always advisable to hire a private plane for a large company or a small number of people. For these purposes, private jets fit better.
If the companies’ representatives or individuals often make air travel because of their occupation, in order to save money and convenience you can purchase a small premium business or private plane. This article describes three of the best aircraft at the private aviation sector.
The cost of the aircraft, depending on the model has a fairly high price range. Best of manufactured to date models can reach several tens of millions of dollars, but the cheapest models can cost up to hundreds of thousands of dollars or even lower.
Cessna 750 Citation X
The most popular model of private aviation of the business class is Cessna. Especially great demand is on the model 750 Citation X. This model is one of the brightest representatives of the middle planes for business and premium class. The aircraft is designed for long air travel, and is able to accommodate up to twelve people.
Thanks to twin-engine turbofan engine from Rolls-Royce’s it is considered the most high-speed airplane, length of 22 meters. The wings have arrow-shaped design, allowing it to fly by 150 – 200 km / h faster than other business jets.
Appearance of the plane is as presentable as its interior decoration. Everything possible is made here so the passengers feel cozy and comfortable during a long flight.
Embraer Legacy 650
The next most popular model is the business jet Embraer Legacy 650. This aircraft is visually divided into three zones for passengers, the cabin area of the club and luggage compartment.
Compared with other models of the same class, the aircraft has a low noise level and an excellent ventilation system. These innovations make it possible to hold meetings with your partners even on the plane, as well as negotiations on satellite communications. The cabin is equipped with a TV and all the necessary kitchen equipment, which allows a wonderful rest and a snack during the flight.
Its design feature is the presence of two powerful turbofan engines, which can provide up to 7,000 flight kilometers. Also thanks to the new software, this model can take off and land at high altitude airfields.
Also, the best aircraft, and therefore the fastest one, comfortable and expensive are manufactured by Gulfstream. Planes of this company are used by many millionaires and world-famous celebrities.
The cost of the aircraft model G550 can reach fifty million dollars. However, given its high performance characteristics and level of comfort and reliability of the design, its cost is fully paid off.
Electric aircraft has been in a stage of developmental work a long time ago. But now an American start-up, the European aerospace giant Airbus and Chinese aviation manufacturer are in the ranks of those who believe that electric models of planes are ready to fly. If they succeed, the aircraft will be much cheaper and more convenient – for training.
“Electric planes will change everything, if it comes to the cost of the flight,” – says George Bay, Colorado entrepreneur, participated in several aviation projects. His new company, Aero Electric Aircraft Corporation, plans to prepare a double Sun Flyer flight tests. Solar panels on the wings provide additional charging, and if you leave the aircraft in the sun for a few days, its battery will be fully charged absolutely free.
Taking into account the cost of maintenance and fuel, Double Sun Flyer will cost just $ 5 per hour, according to Bay, compared with the same Cessna 172 ($ 73 per hour), four-seater, which is often used for training. New Sun Flyer will be priced from 180 000 to 200 000 dollars, which may seem expensive, but the same new 172 costs about 370 thousand dollars.
Bay hopes that he will be the first manufacturer of electric training aircraft in the US market certified FAA by 2017 or earlier. But he is not alone.
In April, Airbus aircraft showed a battery-powered E-Fan 2.0. In July, the company said it plans to become the first in the market of electric aircraft for flight schools and begin deliveries already in 2018.
Two-seater plane, which will be built by the French manufacturer Daher-Socata, can stay aloft for up to two hours. It is not enough for commercial use, but quite decent for training, because the training field of the majority of flights continues for about an hour with no passengers on board. As soon as the plane sits, its battery can be easily replaced by a fresh one and continue flying. By 2019, Airbus also plans to introduce a hybrid version of the four-seater for personal transport. This is the first step of 30-year plan for the development of 90-seat aircraft with electric or hybrid propulsion system, part of an ambitious European program to reduce carbon emissions by 75% by 2050.
Electric aircraft is developing in China too: now there is the plant under construction, which will produce two-seater Rui Xiang RX1E. The aircraft developed by Shenyang Aerospace University, will be able to fly up to 90 minutes on a full charge. Private aviation develops slowly in China, since its development is complicated by government restrictions, but the pressure allows to look for other, more flexible ways.
If the cost of batteries will continue to decline and electric planes will spend more time in the air, the growth of the market of petrol engines will slow down, at any rate it will be so for training purposes, where the flights are short and more than two seats are not needed. In addition to cost reductions, electric flight is softer and quieter and the service in general is not difficult due to the lack of moving parts. If you are planning to learn to pilot a private jet, get ready for an electric one.
private jet rental
In business aviation charter flight is performed in the time you need. On-order jet is at your disposal for the leased period. You will be able to arrive at a particular airport, make the necessary appointments, and then to go back on the same plane.
A private plane will be specially prepared for you with all the necessary services for work and comfortable trip. A private plane is no longer a novelty, and these services are provided by many companies all around the world.
The convenience of this service is that you can order a plane just when you need it, rather than waiting on a fixed schedule from the existing airlines. You can schedule meetings in various remote areas of the world and do not depend on the schedules of the airlines. You are planning a meeting, and air carrier matches with the plan of your journey, but not vice versa.
Using the services of airlines you plan your appointments based on the schedules of their flights, which can damage the success of your other plans, aircraft rent frees you from such difficulties. In addition, a private jet can be equipped according to your individual order, so you would not be out of work during the flight. Renting a private jet has the best quality-to-price ratio.
Airlines also offer charter flights. VIP-charter is a flight that for a certain period will allow you to become full owner of the aircraft, and thus independently correct departure time, route, date, and other details. Signing the contract, the parties prescribe the conditions for cooperation and the duration of the charter lease.
Organizing charter for VIP-persons is an easy job, but it is giving a lot of advantages. First, on board the VIP-charter food and high quality service are organized. Second, charter flight passengers can pass the passport control zone proactively through VIP-halls. There will be a private transport served to the ramp. If necessary, the list of services will be adjusted according to the needs of each customer.
Personal security and privacy are conditions which are priority for a sufficiently large part of the customers. Flight information is available only to the client and a limited number of employees who are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of known to them data. In addition, aircraft rent excludes the possibility of the undesirable people’s presence on board. Your “neighbors” during the flight will only be passengers invited by you, flight attendants and crew. This is particularly topical for representatives of show business and dignitaries.
Luxury private jets
Unlike regular flights there is no timetable, and there are no missing planes, instead of nervous passengers there is only ‘luxury’ around you: you will love to fly in a private jet.
900 Hawker XP, Hawker Beechcraft
Inside The Hawker 900 XP your thoughts are released. This luxury model of Beechcraft due to the improved performance, extended range, increased power and a greater degree of comfort is number one among the favorites of the public.
Best-selling midsize business jet of the world is the best in its class in regard to the size of the cabin. For13 million euros there six passengers will accommodate here, even standing – the interior is so spacious. Powerful Honeywell engines provide power of 863 km / h, allowing to make the flight from New York to Honolulu with one single transfer in record time. Low cost of the flight and fuel efficiency will allow even zealous conquerors of heaven to get unalloyed pleasure of this class “de luxe” aircraft.
Gulfstream G550, Gulfstream
If you spend all your life in a villa, so you need a palace for your voyages: Gulfstream G550. Still, the price of 46 million dollars is not everyone’s money.
Stars like Tom Cruise and Barbara Streisand pray for the power of its two engines from Rolls-Royce. John Travolta has a private Gulfstream in his front garden too. G550 is the flagship of Gulfstream fleet. He flies 10,863 kilometers – that is the distance from New York to Tokyo – without a single landing even in strong winds. With Mach number (the ratio of the speed of the aircraft to the speed of sound) to 0.87 (about 1,000 km / h) the aircraft is faster than most business jets. And more luxury: 15.3-meter cabin will provide enough space for 16 passengers. Eight comfortable leather seats and two broad two-place lounges give space to work and relax, and detachable and lockable compartments allow to get some privacy if it is desired. 14 oval panoramic windows fill the interior with light and make door handles and gold taps decorated with sapphires sparkle. Video, DVD and Airshow provide a variety of entertainment options. The system of external cameras gives onetime terms of launch, landing and flying of a machine.
400 Hawker XP, Hawker Beechcraft
Do you need to take on board more passengers or suddenly fly farther than the usual 2,734 kilometers? No matter what you choose, with the Hawker 400 XP flexibility is always flying with you.
This business jet of Beechcraft family gathers points, especially for the possibility of a spontaneous increase in range. In addition, it has the largest and most luxurious cabin of all light aircraft. The interior is decorated in a noble cherry wood, the tables are decorated with gold, so that wealthy clients from the very first flight will feel at home. While the 19 million dollars jet are piercing the sky at a speed of 867 km / h, passengers are resting or working in the elegant, fully adjustable seats. And around …there is comfort, wherever you look. The spacious bathrooms, of course, have a solid door. The temperature and lighting throughout the aircraft can be adjusted depending on the mood, why else would you own a plane? – Dimly lit and poorly ventilated lounge you can get in regular flights too.
Business jets for sale
Executive airplane is a plane of business class, which is designed for officials or representatives of the companies’ flights without a special schedule. These planes can be used by individuals for personal travel. Executive aircraft can also carry cargo belonging to organizations. This class of aircraft includes airplanes with comfortable cabin and capacity from 6 to 20, depending on the specific type.
Gulfstream G650 is a true standard of business aircraft. This over-sized Gulfstream airplane offers the highest speed and comfort among modern business jet in its class.
GulfstreamG650 at a cruising speed of 0.85 Mach can carry 8 passengers and 4 of crew and fly 12,964 km without refueling. This compares with the flight from New York to Beijing from London to Buenos Aires or from Dubai to New York. At high cruising speed of Mach 0.90 the aircraft will take passengers from Los Angeles to London and back in record time. And with a maximum cruising speed of Mach 0.925 Gulfstream G650 is the fastest aircraft in civil aviation. With a cruising height of 15,545 m Gulfstream G650 can fly much higher than atmospheric layers with adverse weather conditions and air corridors.
Bombardier Challenger 300
High comfort airliner Bombardier Challenger 300 have been the best-selling model in its class for almost ten years, and nowadays, according to operators, it continues to be on top of business jets super-middle class.
Bombardier Challenger 300 aircraft model was the first business jet of super-middle class, challenging their standard design, it was created from scratch. After serious research, the purpose of which was to provide customers with the best conditions for doing business, the aircraft was designed for flights from one US coast to the other and was equipped with a unique room, designed for conferences.
Challenger 300 was made in the best traditions of Bombardier company. It allows CEOs not to depend on weather conditions and problems on busy roads. All aircraft systems and propulsions are designed for intensive use. The aircraft can carry up to ten passengers and fly at a distance of 5646 km at a cruising speed of Mach 0.80 (270 km / s)
Aircraft Falcon 7X
Aircraft Falcon 7X is the most technologically advanced business-jet, which currently performs flights all over the world. Refined yet practical, it sets new standards for performance. This is a new generation of business aircraft.
Falcon 7X was designed to fly to a distance of 9,600 km, which allows connecting cities such as Paris and Tokyo, Shanghai and Seattle, New York and Jeddah, Johannesburg and London. The aircraft can carry eight passengers and a crew of three. It has a top speed of Mach 0.90 (300 km / s) in order to deliver passengers to the right place as quickly as possible.
private jet charters
People use different modes of transport to get to their destination. The poorest usually walk to their desired places, people with a little more money are using public transport, rich ones travel in luxury cars … And what do the richest people in the world do? Many of them have private jets. This, of course, has advantages compared to ordinary people’s way of flying – you do not have to wait several hours to get on board of the aircraft, as well as to take obnoxious control of security. On the other hand, the opponents of this snobbery often say that personal jet is a waste of money that could be spent on something more useful. Whatever your opinion on this issue, look at the 5 most expensive private jets in the world.
Embraer Phenom 300
Embraer Phenom 3002, developed by the Brazilian aircraft manufacturer ‘Embraer’ is a light jet aircraft with a capacity of 9 passengers and flight range to 3,650 kilometers. ‘Phenom 300’ went on sale in 2008 and climbed up to the first line of best-selling business aircraft – in 2013 60 of these airplanes there sold. Price of ‘Phenom’ is from 5 to 8 million dollars.
‘767’ (Boeing 767) is a large wide-body twin-engine jet airliner, which can accommodate 375 people and fly 11,800 kilometers, but Roman Abramovich, a Russian businessman and owner of Chelsea football club, bought a plane for himself. The jet aircraft interior is decorated with a chestnut wood and gold. The aircraft can often be seen in Luton airport, 48 kilometers north of London, where Abramovich spends a lot of time.
Bombardier Global 8000
‘Bombardier Global 8000’ is able to fly 14,600 kilometers at a speed of 1,000 kilometers per hour, boasts the lowest fuel consumption and low volume of harmful emissions in its class. Jet provides three separate residential premises, including the ‘great hall’. According to the company, a division of the cabin into three zones is based on the research of customers’ requirements worldwide. This aircraft can accommodate from 8 to 19 passengers and can be purchased for the modest sum of $ 66 million.
Dassault Falcon 5X
New ‘Falcon 5X’ made its first flight in the first quarter of 2015. Maximum speed in 1102 kilometers per hour, the range of 9630 kilometers of flight and the ability to land on short runways allow this jet to become one of the most popular in its class. Elegant and comfortable interior of the aircraft is guaranteed, as in the case of other ‘Falcon’ models. ‘Falcon 5X’ can be purchased for $ 45 million.
‘Airbus A380’ is the largest passenger aircraft in the world, due to the capacity of 800 people, so the purchase of aircraft for private use is craziness, but that’s what the Prince of Saudi Arabia Alawaleed bin Talal has made. He bought «Airbus A380» for $ 300 million, and then spent more than $ 200 million to bring it up to something incredible. The list of what you can find on the plane would have been very long, so we mention only that there are spa treatments, steam rooms, paved with marble, giant televisions on the walls and floors, elevators and so on.